Oversigt: Forskning og literatur omkring skema terapi

Skema terapi ved borderline personlighedsstruktur

  1. Arntz, A. Stupar-Rutemfrans, S., Bloo, J. & van Dyck. (2015) Prediction of treatment discontinuation and recovery from BPD: Results from an RCT comparing Schema Therapy and Transference Focused Psychotherapy. Behavior research and therapy74, 60-71.
  2. Farrell, J.M., Shaw, I.A., Webber, M.A. (2009) A schema-focused approach to group psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 40, 317-328.
  3. Giesen-Bloo, J., van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P., van Tilburg, W., Dirksen, C., van Asselt, T., Kremers, I., Nadort, M. & Arntz, A. (2006) Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Randomised trial of schema-focused therapy versus transference-focused psychotherapy Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(6) 649-658.
  4. Nadort, M., Arntz, A., Smit, J.H., Giesen-Bloo, J., Eikelenboom, M., Spinhoven, P., van Asselt, T., Wensing, M. & van Dyck, R. (2009). Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder with versus without crisis support by the therapist outside office hours: A randomized trial. Behaviour Research and Therapy47(11), 961-973.
  5. Nadort, M., van Dyck, R., Smit, J.H., Giesen-Bloo, J., Eikelenboom, M., Wensing, M., Spinhoven, P., Dirksen, C., Bleecke, J., van Milligen, B. & van Vreeswijk, M. (2009). Three preparatory studies for promoting implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder in general mental health care. Behaviour Research and Therapy47(11), 938-945.
  6. Sempertegui, G.A., Karreman, A., Arntz, A. & Bekker, M. (2012). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(3), 426-447.
  7. Tan YM, Lee CW, Averbeck LE, Brand-de Wilde O, Farrell J, Fassbinder E, et al. (2018) Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: A qualitative study of patients’ perceptions. PLoS ONE 13(11): e0206039. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206039
  8. van Asselt, A. D. I., Dirksen, C. D., Arntz, A., Giesen-Bloo, J. H., van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P., et al. (2008). Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: cost effectiveness of schema-focused therapy versus transference focused psychotherapy. Br. J. Psychiatry 192, 450–457. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.033597

Andre personlighedsforstyrrelser

  1. Bamelis, L., Evers, S., Spinhoven, P., & Arntz, A. (2014) Results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 17(3), 305-322.


  1. Carter, J., McIntosh, V., Jordan, J., Porter, R., Frampton, C. & Joyce, P. (2013). Psychotherapy for depression: a randomized clinical trial comparing schema therapy and cognitive behavior therapy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(2), 500-505. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.034.
  2. Koruk, S., & Ozabaci, N. (2018). Effectiveness of Schema Therapy on the Treatment of Depressive Disorders: A Meta-Analysis/Sema Terapinin Depresif Bozukluklarin Tedavisindeki Etkililigi: Bir Meta-Analiz. Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar/Current Approaches to Psychiatry10(4), 460+. Retrieved from https://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A551167590/AONE?u=googlescholar&sid=AONE&xid=7b786d5e
  3. Malogiannis, I., Arntz, A., Spiropoulou, A., Aggeli, A., Karveli, S., Tsartsara, E., Vlavianou, M., Pehlivanidis, A., Papadimitriou, G. & Zervas, I. (2014). Schema Therapy for patients with chronic depression. A single case series study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 45,319-329.
  4. Porter, R.J., Bourke, C., Carter, J.D., Douglas, K.M., McIntosh, V.V.W., Jordan, J., Joyce, P.R. and Frampton, C.M.A. (2016). No change in neuropsychological dysfunction or emotional processing during treatment of major depression with cognitive–behaviour therapy or schema therapy. Psychological medicine46(02), 393-404.
  5. Renner, F., Arntz, A., Leeuw, I., & Huibers, M. (2013). Treatment for chronic depression using schema therapy. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice20(2), 166-180.
  6. Renner, F., Arntz, A., Peeters, F. P., Lobbestael, J., & Huibers, M. J. (2016). Schema therapy for chronic depression: Results of a multiple single case series. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry51, 66-73.
  7. Seavey, A., & Moore, T. M. (2012). Schema-Focused Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder and Personality Disorder: A Case Study. Clinical Case Studies11(6), 457-473.

Angst lidelser

  1. Cockram, D., Drummond, P. & Lee, C. (2010). Role and treatment of early maladaptive schemas in Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 17, 165-182.
  2. Gude, T. & Hoffart, H. (2008). Change in interpersonal problems after cognitive agoraphobia and schema focused therapy versus psychodynamic treatment as usual of inpatients with agoraphobia and Cluster C personality disorders. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49, 195-199.


  1. Brown, J., Selth, S., Stretton, A., Simpson, S. (2016). Do dysfunctional coping modes mediate the relationship between perceived parenting style and disordered eating behaviours? Journal of Eating Disorders 4(27):1-10. DOI: 10.1186/s40337-016-0123-1
  2. Edwards, D. J. A. (2017). An interpretative phenomenological analysis of schema modes in a single case of anorexia nervosa: Part 1 – Background, method and Child and Parent modes. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, 17 (1), 1-13.  doi: 10.1080/20797222.2017.1326728.  
  3. Edwards, D. J. A. (2017). An interpretative phenomenological analysis of schema modes in a single case of anorexia nervosa: Part 2 – Coping modes, Healthy Adult mode, superordinate themes and implications for research and practice. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology, 17 (1), 1-12.  doi: 10.1080/20797222.2017.1326730
  4. Hodge, L. & Simpson, S. (2016). Speaking the Unspeakable: Artistic expression in Eating Disorder Research and Schema Therapy. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 50, 1-8. doi:10.1016/j.aip.2016.05.005
  5. Keith, L., Gillanders, D. & Simpson, S. (2009). An exploration of the main sources of shame in an eating disordered population. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 16, 317-327.
  6. McIntosh, V. V., Jordan, J., Carter, J. D., Frampton, C. M., McKenzie, J. M., Latner, J. D., & Joyce, P. R. (2016). Psychotherapy for transdiagnostic binge eating: A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy, appetite-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy, and schema therapy. Psychiatry research240, 412-420.
  7. Simpson, S. (2012). Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders: a case study illustration of the Mode Approach. In van Vreeswijk, M., Broersen, J. & Nadort, M. (Eds.) The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Schema Therapy: Theory, Research and Practice. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. Pp145-171.
  8. Simpson, S., Morrow, E., van Vreeswijk, M. & Reid, C., (2010). Group schema therapy for eating disorders: A pilot study. Frontiers in Psychology in Clinical Settings, 1, 182.
  9. Simpson, S. & Slowey, L. (2011). Video Therapy for Atypical Eating Disorder and Obesity: A Case Study. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health, 7(1), 38-43. doi:10.2174/1745017901107010038
  10. Talbot, D., Smith, E., Tomkins, A., Brockman, R., Simpson, S. Schema modes in eating disorders compared to a community sample. Journal of Eating Disorders. 3(1), 1. doi:10.1186/s40337-015-0082-y

Indenfor rettspsykiatrisk setting

  1. Bernstein, D., Arntz, A. & de Vos, M. (2007) Schema Focused Therapy in Forensic Settings: Theoretical Model and Recommendations for Best Clinical Practice. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 6(2), 169-183.
  2. Bernstein, D.P., Nijman, H., Karos, K., Keulen-de Vos, M., de Vogel, V., & Lucker, T. (2012). Schema Therapy for forensic patients with personality disorders: Design and preliminary findings of multicenter randomized clinical trial in the Netherlands. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 11, 312-324.
  3. Chakhssi, F., Kersten, T., de Ruiter, C., & Bernstein, D.P. (2014). Treating the untreatable: A single case study of a psychopathic patient treated with Schema Therapy. Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy (Chic), 51(3):447-61. doi: 10.1037/a0035773

Skematerapi for andre komplekse psykologiske vanskeligheder samt co-morbiditet

  1. Arjan C. Videler, Rita J. J. Van Royen, Sylvia M. J. Heijnen-Kohl, Gina Rossi, Sebastiaan P. J. Van Alphen, and Christina M. Van der Feltz-Cornelis (2017). Adapting Schema Therapy for Personality Disorders in Older Adults. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy: 10 (1): 62-78. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2017.10.1.62
  2. Gojani, P.J., Masjedi, M. Khaleghipour, S. & Behzadi, E. (2017) Effects of Schema Therapy and Mindfulness on the Maladaptive Schemas Hold by the Psoriasis Patients with the Psychopathology Symptoms. Adv Biomed Res. 6: 4.
  3. Khatamsaz, B., Forouzandeh, E., Ghaderi, D. (2017). Effectiveness of schema therapy on marital satisfaction and marital relationship quality in married women. Int J Educ Psychol Res; 3:11-16
  4. Tapia, G. Perez-Dandieu, B., Lenoir, H. Delile, J. (2017). Treating addiction with schema therapy and EMDR in women with co-occurring SUD and PTSD: A pilot study. Journal of Substance Use. Doi: 10.1080/14659891.2017.1378743
  5. Vuijka, R. & Arntz, A. (2017) Schema therapy as treatment for adults with autism spectrum disorder and comorbid personality disorder: Protocol of a multiple-baseline case series study testing cognitive-behavioral and experiential interventions, Contemproary Clinical Trials Communications, 5, 80 -85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2017.01.001

Skema terapi i gruppe

  1. Dickhaut, V. & Arntz, A. (2014). Combined group and individual schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: A pilot study. J. Behav. Ther. & Exp. Psychiat. 45, 242e251
  2. Farrell, J., Shaw, I., Webber, M. (2009). A schema-focused approach to group psychotherapy for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry, 40(2), 317-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2009.01.002. Epub 2009 Jan 14.
  3. Skewes, S., Samson, R., Simpson, S. & van Vreeswijk, M. (2014). Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: A pilot studyFrontiers in Psychology, 5, 1592. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01592
  4. Simpson, S., Skewes, S., van Vreeswijk, M. & Samson, R. (2015). Commentary: Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: An introduction to the treatment protocol. Frontiers in Psychology6 (Article 609), 1-3. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00609
  5. van Vreeswijk M. F., Spinhoven P., Eurelings-Bontekoe E. H. M., Broersen J. (2012). Changes in symptom severity, schemas and modes in heterogeneous psychiatric patient groups following short term schema cognitive-behavioural group therapy: a naturalistic pre-post treatment design in an outpatient clinic. Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 21, 29–38 doi:10.1002/cpp.1813

Diverse reviews og oversigt

  1. Bakos, D.S., Gallo, A.E. & Wainer, R. (2015). Systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of schema therapy. Contemp Behav Health Care, 1.  doi: 10.15761/CBHC.1000104
  2. Hopwood, C. & Thomas, K. (2014). Schema therapy is an effective treatment for avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Evid Based Ment Health;17(3):90-1. doi: 10.1136/eb-2014-101858.
  3. Jacob, G., Arntz, A. (2013). Schema Therapy for Personality Disorders – A Review. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 6(2), 171-185.
  4. Masley, S., Gillanders, D., Simpson, S. & Taylor, M. (2012). A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base for Schema TherapyCognitive behaviour therapy, 41(3), 185-202. doi:10.1080/16506073.2011.614274
  5. Pugh, M. (2015). A narrative review of schemas and schema therapy outcomes in the eating disorders. Clinical Psychology Review39, 30-41.
  6. Sempertegui, G.A., Karreman, A., Arntz, A. & Bekker, M. (2012). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(3), 426-447.
  7. Taylor, C. D. J., Bee, P. and Haddock, G. (2016), Does schema therapy change schemas and symptoms? A systematic review across mental health disorders. Psychol Psychother Theory Res Pract. doi:10.1111/papt.12112

Teknikker og metoder i skematerapi

  1. Arntz, A. (2011). Imagery rescripting for personality disorders. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18, 466–481. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2011.04.006Pugh, M. (2017) Pull Up a Chair. The Psychologist. 30, 42-47.
  2. Arntz, A. (2016) Imagery Rescripting for Personality Disorders: Healing Early Maladaptive Schemas, in Working with Emotion in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Techniques for Clinical Practice, McKay, D. & Thoma, N. (Eds), Guildford, New York.
  3. Brockman, R. N., & Calvert, F. L. (2016). Imagery Rescripting for PTSD and Personality Disorders: Theory and Application. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 1-8.
  4. Ten Napel-Schut, M, Abma, T., Bamelis, L. & Arntz, A. (2011). Personality disorder patients’ perspectives on the introduction of imagery within schema therapy: a qualitative study of patients’ experiences. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18, 482–490. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2011.04.005
  5. Weertman, A. & Arntz, A., (2007). Effectiveness of treatment of childhood memories in cognitive therapy for personality disorders: a controlled study contrasting methods focusing on the present and methods focusing on childhood memories. Behavior Research and Therapy, 45, 2133-2143.

Video for træning af klinikere

  1. Van der Wijngaart, R & Hayes, C. (2016). Fine Tuning Imagery Rescripting, (3 disk DVD), www.schematherapytraining.com
  2. Hayes, C. & van der Wijngaart, R. (2018). Fine Tuning Chair Work in Schema Therapy (3 disk DVD), www.schematherapytraining.com
  3. van der Wijngaart, R. & van Genderen, H. (2018). Schema Therapy: Step by Step.www.schematherapy.nl/Step-by-Step/

Selvhjælps litteratur

  1. Behary, W. (2013).  Disarming the narcissist: Surviving and thriving with the self-absorbed. New Harbinger.
  2. Jacob, G., van Genderen, H. & Seebauer, L. (2015) Breaking negative thinking patterns: A schema therapy self-help and support book. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  3. Louis, J. & Louis, K. (2015). Good Enough Parenting: An in-depth perspective on meeting core emotional needs and avoiding exasperation. NY: Morgan James.
  4. Stevens, B. & Roediger, E. (2016). Breaking negative relationship patterns: a schema therapy self-help and support book. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
  5. Stevens, B. (2017). Hidden Learning: The Way we are wired for intimacy. Fremantle: Vivid Publishing.
  6. Young, J. E., & Klosko, J. S. (1994). Reinventing your life. The breakthrough program to end negative behavior … and feel great again. New York: Plume.

(Dec 2018 – Lisa Chantler and Susan Simpson)